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Some of the important works, dealing with Nyasa, are: Gandharva, ix. Acara Various modes of Tantric Sadhana are recognised. These are called Acaras of which the following seven kinds are generally accepted: Vedacara, Vaisnavacara, Saivacara, Daksinacara, Vamacara, Siddhantacara, Kaulacara. Vedacara, as the name indicates, consists in copious Vedic rituals. Vaisnavacara, the way of devotion, encourages firm faith in the saving grace of Brahman instead of blind faith.
In Saivacara, the way of knowledge, there is a combination of bhakti and sakti with faith; the devotee seeks the acquisition of Sakti. In Daksinacara, the devotee is capable of meditating on the three Saktis of Kriya, Iccha and ]nana of Brahman, and acquires the ability of worshipping the triad, viz. Brahma, Visnu, Mahesvara. In Vamacara, the devotee overcomes pravrtti propensity , and proceeds to nivrtti cessation of desire.
In it, he becomes free from the bonds of delusion, shame, etc. A Companion to Tantra 28 with which a person of pasu-bhava is tied. According to some e. Parananda-sutra, pp. The word Varna has been taken by some to mean 'left' as distinct from 'right' Daksina.
According to others, it means a woman varna ; they hold that Vamacara stresses the need of woman as an essential element for sadhana. This Acara prepares the aspirant for the attainment of Sivahood which is possible, with the help of the Guru, in Kaulacara.
In this state, he becomes liberated in life jivanmukta , and, with the k n o w l e d g e of Brahman, attains the state of Paramahamsa, the highest goal of Tantric sadhana. The term kula has been differently interpreted by different authorities. It may mean i the individual soul Mahanirvana, vii. In some works, Acaras are broadly divided into two classes, Aghora followed by the Saiva sect, named Aghorin and Yoga.
Besides the above, there is mention of Cinacara, also called Mahacinacara, Clna-krama, Cina-sadhana. It is the name of the Chinese way of worship, chiefly relating to goddess Tara, believed to have been brought by sage Vasistha, and formed the basis of Vamacara. In this connection, the following texts may be consulted: Sakti-samgama, Sundari, 1. Sava-Sadhana Ritual with a corpse.
Several Tantras deal with it. It is described below after the Tantrasara. The places, suitable for this rite, are: Introduction 29 Vacant house, river bank, mountain, lonely spot, root of a Bel tree, cemetery and. The appropriate time is night of the eighth and fourteenth lunar mansions in both the bright and dark fortnights. Tuesday is the most propitious for it. The dead bodies of some men and animals are recommended for the rite.
Prohibited are the body of a Brahmana, of the cow and of a woman. A human body is called maha-sava great corpse which is stated to be the most suitable.
Among the humans, the bodies of the following are prescribed: 21 i A Candala who died as a result of being hit with a stick, sword, spear, etc. The bodies of the following persons are tabooed: i one who committed suicide, ii hen-pecked person stri-vasya , iii apostate patita ,22 iv untouchable asprsya , v beardless man, vi one whose genital organ is not clearly visible, vii leper, viii old man age not specified , ix one who died of starvation in a famine.
A stale corpse is also forbidden. Krsnananda, following some Tantric authorities, provides that, in the absence of the prescribed corpses, an aspirant should perform the rite on an effigy made of any of the following: Darbha grass , barley, rice, etc. In the absence of suitable carcasses, the body of any animal jantu-matra may serve the purpose.
General appellation of the lowest and most hated of the mixed castes originating from the union of a Sudra father and a Brahrnana mother; an outcaste. Degraded as a result of committing a heinous act or sin. Japa, with great concentration, should be continued so long as the corpse or carcass concerned does not promise to give the desired object or to grant a boon.
The devotee, having achieved his purpose, should release the hairs and feet of the dead body, which were tied before the rite commenced.
Then, after washing or bathing the body, he is to throw it into water or bury it. The articles of worship are to be cast into water.
Finally, he should go home. The other rites, in connection with Savasadhana, are drinking of pancagavya and giving feast to twenty-five Brahmanas. God is believed to reside in the body of such a devotee for a fortnight since the commencement of the rite.
During this period, he is ordained to abstain from sexual enjoyment, listening to songs and witnessing dance. Siddhi Fulfilment or success, achieved by Tantric Sadhana, may be of two kinds, viz. After reaching the peak of spiritual life by Sadhana, one acquires the following Siddhis or miraculous powers: anima assuming a figure of atomic size , mahima power of increasing one's size at will , laghima power of assuming excessive lightness , garima power of assuming excessive heaviness , prapti power of getting everything at will , prakamya irresistible will , isitva superiority over others , vasitva power of controlling others.
There are other minor Siddhis also. The greatest Siddhi, however, is Mahanirvana or Moksa which is the ultimate goal of Sadhana. Sat-Karma Six magical acts common to many Tannic works. There are minor differences in the lists of these acts. Those commonly dealt with are: Marana killing , Stambhana arresting the effort of the enemy or causing his physical immobility , Uccatana expulsion , Vidvesana causing dissension or creating bad blood , Vasikarana bringing others under control and Santi propitiatory rite for averting evil.
It is not wholly correct. Again, She asserts: by my own greatness I have assumed the forms of these worlds stanza 8. She combines in Herself both the efficient cause arabhamana bhuvanani visva and the material cause etavati mahima sam babhuva of the world.
The very word 'Sakti' occurs in the above Veda several times e. This Veda mentions magicians VII. Magic, particularly black magic, is a common topic in Tantra. Khila i. Supplement, V. The magical ideas and practices like Madhuvidya transforming poison into nectar I.
In an older form of the Vedic Mahavrata ritual, sexual union as a fertility rite is permitted. Maithuna sexual intercourse is one of the essentials of Sadhana, according to some Tantras.
The Atharvaveda contains a part called Abhicarika which deals with curses, exorcisms, etc. Hence, Tantra has been characterised e. Sukranttisara, iv. The Vedic sacrificial rites, called Vajapeya and Sautramani, appear to foreshadow Tannic Cakra esoteric assembly of Tannic devotees.
From some Brahmanas e. Satapatha, V. This may have given rise to the practice of drinking as an essential element of Tannic Panca-makara-sadhana. The origin of the Nadis, so important in Tantra, can be traced to some Upanisads. For example, mention may be made of the Katha vi. The Mundaka refers i. This concept occurs in the Uma-Haimavari legend in the Kenopanisad. The Sankhayana Grhyasutra mentions ii. This is a form of Kali in Tantra. The Tantras are not totally opposed to the Veda.
For example, in the Parasurama-kalpasutra section X , some Vedic mantras are included in Rasmi-pancaka Sutra The Kularnava states II. From the foregoing discussion, it can be said that the remark of the great Sarnkaracarya, made in his exposition of the Brahmasutras, that Tantra is anti-Vedic, seems to be too sweeping. As we have stated elsewhere, Harita, one of the twenty authoritative writers of Dharmasastra, characterises Tantra as one of the two kinds of Sruti revealed literature , the other being the Veda vide Kulluka's commentary on the Manu-smrti, II.
From the presence of Tantric elements in the Vedic literature, it seems that the populist Tantric culture ran parallel to the elitist Vedic culture. Painting showing Satchakras, Rajasthan, 18th Cent. Painting showing yoni yantra, Rajasthan, 18th Cent.
Courtesy National Museum. Painting on cloth showing Sri-Yantra, Gujarat, 17th Cent. Painting showing Yori-Arana, Nepal, 17th Cent. Painting showing Satchakra, Tanjore, 19th Cent. Painting on cloth showing Om Rymn, Rajasthan, 19th Cent. Contemporary Madhubani painting showing Kali, 20th Cent.
From the description of Nikumbhila, the palladium of Lanka V. Her worship with wine and meat confirms this assumption. Moreover, Her worship by Indrajit with the object of causing harm to the enemy is typically like Tantric abhicara. The Uttarakanda refers, at some places, to Siva-Sakti. Modern scholars, however, consider it to be spurious. The Mahabharata present form completed by c.
The Durga hymns Virata, ch. The mention of Kali, Malini, etc. Adiparvan, ch. Mantras, called Manava-vidya, were believed to produce the magical effects of a door opening automatically and making one invisible. As early as in c.
Banabhatta 7th century, first half mentions Candi and Her worship with blood Kadambari, Kale's ed. The magical practice of rendering one invisible is referred to ibid. The author's Harsacarita Kane's ed.
Bhavabhuti c. The worship of the hedious, dark Goddess Karala, who appears to be the Tannic Kali, is mentioned in Act v. There is description also of a Kapalika. The Tannic Tara cult is referred to in the prose romance Vasavadatta of Subandhu lower limit 8th century A. The Kashmirian Ksemendra 11th century A. Kalhana 12th century A. Somadeva, in his Kathasaritsagara Tawney's Eng. According to the Buddhist Sanskrit work, Lalitavistara c. These three are mentioned as separate letters in Tantra alone.
Hymnology forms a distinct branch of study in the history of Sanskrit literature. Hymns are addressed to different gods and goddesses. We shall deal with just a few such hymns which will reveal that the Tantric devotees, at least some of them, did not rest content with merely the nitty-gritty of the dry rituals; they also took to the soul-stirring music of metrical descriptions of their chosen deities to whom they surrendered themselves wholeheartedly.
Saundarya-Lahari Wave of Beauty Generally attributed to Adi Samkaracarya it is in in one version, in another stanzas. The authorship, however, is controversial. So, the date of its composition is uncertain. The hymn appears to be deliberately designed to present the essence of Tantra in the mnemonic form of verses.
As a result, it has become a laboured composition, although there are occasional flashes of poetic art. All the verses are in the Sikharini metre which is not very melodious. It opens with a reference to Siva and Sakti from whose union creation proceeds.
The face of the Divine Mother Devi is beautiful like the full moon in autumn. She excels even the celestial nymphs, Urvasi and Rambha in beauty v. Verse 9 depicts the ascent of Kundalini through the different Cakras.
Different yantras, used in the worship of Devi, have been described. Verse 23 emphasises the oneness of Siva and Sakti. Verse 31 refers to 64 Tantras. The next verse contains the secret sixteen-lettered mantra of Srividya.
Verses 36 to 41 deal with worship in the six Cakras. Verses give a graphic description of the Divine Mother. This description occasionally reflects poetic fancy and literary skill. For example, the parting of Devi's hairs is conceived as the outlet for the flow of the wave of Her facial beauty The swans are stated to have learnt graceful gait from Devi Sublimity of thought, couched in well-chosen words, is a marked feature of the hymn.
The use of the figures of words like anuprasa e. Verse 63, stating that the brightness of the smile of Devi is superior to moonlight, is an excellent case of the use of the figure Vyatireka. The hymn contains the main features of Tantric sadhana rousing of Kundalini, its penetration of the Cakras and union with 36 A Companion to Tantra Siva, descent of Kundalini, Sri-cakra, the symbolic abode of Sakti verse 11 , unity of Siva-Sakti 23 , Srividya-mantra 32 , idea of the excellence of Antaryaga.
The author concludes the hymn stating that the panegyric of Devi with words, learnt from Her, is similar to the worship of lights, in honour of the sun, done with its own rays, like the oblation in honour of the moon with the water emanating from the moonstone and like pleasing the ocean with its own waters.
Poet Tagore was so impressed by this hymn that he compared it with Shelley's Intellectual Beauty. An index to its popularity is the existence of its several commentaries of which the most well-known are the Sudha-vidyotini and the Laksmidhara. Of the editions of the hymn, the following are very useful: Ed. Brown, with Eng. Sastri and R. Guru, Madras, ; with nine expositions, Eng.
The authorship is controversial. At least two hymns of the same title exist. One of them consists of only twenty stanzas in the Sikharini metre. It describes the appearance and beauty of goddess Bhavani whose compassion is zealously prayed for. There is the glorification of Siva too. The main topics in the longer hymn, in stanzas, are: glory of Sakti, quest of Her, Sricakra, Kulacara, eternality of Siva-Sakti, origin of Tantra, worship of Devi in different Cakras, persons fit for Her worship, etc.
The latter version is ascribed by some to Gaudiya Samkara, the Bengal author of the Tararahasyavrtti. In this case also, the authorship is open to doubt. It should be noted that several works of this title by different authors have been found. In some manuscripts of the Saundaryalahari, the first part of 40 stanzas is called Ananda-lahari. Avalon, Madras, 5th ed.
Vidyaratna, Calcutta, B. Karpuradi-Stava or Stotra It is a hymn to Kali in 22 verses of which some are composed in Sragdhara, while others in Sikharini metres. The hymn contains Dhyana, Yantra, Sadhana and description of Mahadevi. The chief mantras of Daksina Kalika occur in it. The greatest among them is the Vidyarajni consisting of twenty-two syllables.
The text appears under different titles, e. Karpura-lahari, Karpuradi-syama, Kalikarpura, Kali-svarupa, Daksina-kalika, Paramadevata-karpuradi, etc. Some manuscripts mention Mahakala and Adinatha. While some manuscripts do not mention any source, others are assigned to different sources, e. Daksinakalika-tantra, Phetkarini-tantra, Mahakala-samhita of Adinatha, Viratantra, etc.
There are at least 21 commentaries of which the Dipika or Rahasyartha-sadhika of Kasinatha, Dipika of Rahganatha, one by Durgarama, Vimalananda-dayini-svarupa-vyakhya A. Of several editions, the most noteworthy is "Hymn to Kalikarpuradi-Stotra" - A. Avalon, Tantrik Texts, Madras, 2nd ed. It, indeed, occupies a unique position in India, not only in the panoramic scenic beauty, salubrious climate, but also in the realm of Indian culture.
It produced polyhistors like Ksemendra 11th century and Abhrnavagupta c. The systems of poetics, viz. The founders of these schools were respectively Bhamaha c. As regards Rasa school, Kashmir may be said to have been the pioneer. In the Dhvanyaloka, Anandavardhana, for the first time, clearly stated rasa as the most excellent element of poetry. In later times Visvanatha c. The Rajatarangini of the Kashmirian Kalhana llthth cent.
The Kashmirian Damodaragupta 8th-9th cent. We shall give a brief account of Tannic Saivism of Kashmir, which is unique in its philosophy. The celebrated Saiva school is called Trika triad which has been taken by different scholars to mean different things: 1. Siddha, Namaka, Malini 2.
Siva, Sakti, Anu 3. Pati, Pasu, Pasa 4. Siva, Sakti, Nara 5. Para, Apara, Parapara 6. Agama-sastra B. Spanda-sastra C. Pratyabhijna-sastra A. In the early stage, these works were interpreted from the dualistic, even pluralistic viewpoint. The Trika system actually began with the Sivasutras, supposed to have been revealed to Vasugupta c.
Samkaracarya c. His visit supplied the impetus which resulted in the formulation of Sivaswiras. Of the commentaries on the Sutras, well-known are the Vartika of Bhaskara c. With the firm foothold of the Trika system, some of the aforesaid dualistic Tantras were interpreted from the monistic point of view. Besides Vasugupta, several other scholar-devotees contributed to the development of Saivism in Kashmir.
Of them, famous were Kallata 8th-9th cent. Somananda end of 9th cent. It is supposed to be the cause of all distinctions. This Sastra is based on the Spandasutras, generally called Spandakarikas which are a sort of running commentary on the Sivasutras.
The Spandasutras, attributed to Vasugupta by Ksemaraja, appear to have been composed by Kallata, a pupil of Vasugupta. On the Sutras there is a Vrtti or commentary by Kallata. Tantric Saivism of Kashmir 41 C.
The period that followed was marked by the onslaught of Buddhism on Saivism. To contain the formidable foe, Kashmir developed the systematic philosophy of Pratyabhijna. It is so called because it regards recognition Pratyabhijna of reality as essential for liberation. This philosophy is based on the Sivadrsti of Somananda. Of the other works of this class, well-known are Isvarapratyabhijna or Pratyabhijna-sutra or Pratyabhijna-vimarsini or Laghuvrtti by Abhinavagupta, author also of the Pratyabhijna-vivrtivimarsini, a commentary on Utpala's Vrtti.
Ksemaraja's Pratyabhijnahrdaya is an important compendium. He has other works too. In the Kashmirian school of Tantra, five Makaras are not taken in the literal sense, but their substitutes are prescribed. We shall now take up the Tantras and Saiva works of Kashmir.
Son of Udayakara, he had a son, Vibhramakara, and a fellow student, named Padmananda. According to a tradition, Utpala was a native of Guptapura Kashmiri Gotapora not very far away from Kalasripura modern Kalaspur.
Utpala, who perhaps flourished in the first quarter of the 10th cent. Besides this work, Utpala is credited with the authorship of the following works: 1. Siddhitrayi - the triad comprising Isvara, Sambandha and Ajadapramatr-siddhi - these embody the main points discussed in the Isvara-pratyabhijna. Vrtti on Sivadrsti and Isvara-pratyabhijna - fragments available.
Vivarana on the Isvara-pratyabhijna. The Isvara-pratyabhijna is divided into four sections, viz. Jnanadhikara - dealing with cognitions. It has eight subdivisions, viz. Kriyadhikara - dealing with activity. Its subsections are: i Kriyasakti-nirupana, ii Bhedabheda-vimarsana, iii Manatatphalameya-nirupana, iv Karya-karana-tattva-nirupana. Agamadhikara - discussing the 36 Tattvas of Saivism.
Its subsections are: i Tattva-nirupana, ii Pramatr-tattvanirupana. Tattvartha-samgrahadhikara - discusses the essential nature of the Highest Being, and recapitulates the substance of the foregoing Adhikaras. Its subsections are i Tattvarthanirupana, ii Guruparva-krama-nirupana.
The Isvara-jrratyabhijna has a commentary by Abhinavagupta, called Vimarsini which exists in two forms, one shorter laghvi and the other longer brhati. The latter is supposed to be based on a gloss by Utpala himself, which is now lost. The fourth Adhikara is the epitome of the three preceding Adhikaras. Its contents are as follows: Mahesvara alone is the soul of all beings. Abhinavagupta makes it clear that He is of the nature of consciousness which has no difference in different places, times and in nature.
The question may be posed - well, if MaheSvara alone is the soul, what is the bondage for releasing which this effort is made? The answer is that, through the force of ego, people think 1 am so and so'. Again, the question may be asked - whose bondage is it, who exists other than ISvara. The reply is the real nature of oneself being unknown, one is called a purusa. Purusa creates joy and sorrow. Isvara is Pati and men are Pasus. By practice in the prescribed manner vasus are freed - freed from animality and godlessness is seen.
When one's identity with God is realised one becomes jmanmukta. A liberated person feels that he is one with all things, whereas the fettered one feels otherwise. ParamaSiva is beyond proof, because all the Tattvas are merged as Cit consciousness in Him.
One who realises Atman as Isvara and jnana and kriya as nothing beyond Him, knows what he desires and acts with this very body, he becomes jivanmukta. After death he becomes ParameSvara Himself. Tantric Saivism of Kashmir 43 In conclusion, the author says that he has revealed the easy sughata path declared by the Gurus in the Siva-drsti. Abhinava makes it clear that the path is stated to be easy because it is devoid of the path involved in external and internal rites and practices like Pranayama.
One, following it, realises that Atman makes the world and absorbed in Sivahood attains Siddhi. Abhinava raises the question - if Atman exists, then there is no difference between its recognition and non-recognition. When there is sprout, the seed does not remain unrecognised. The reply is - there are two things, one external like the sprouts, and the other internal like love.
The former does not necessitate recognition, but the latter does. In the realisation that 1 am Mahesvara' recognition is a must. The necessity of recognition is illustrated by a very convincing analogy. The husband may be present near the wife, but so long as she does not recognise him she does not get joy.
Similarly though Visvesvara is in one's Atman, His presence is unknown; as such there is no effect on the person concerned. So pratyabhijna is necessary. The author concludes the work by saying that it is written by him for the people who can attain Siddhi without effort.
Abhinava states that it is accessible to all irrespective of caste, etc. It contains three sections prakasas , and a total of 79 Sutras. Bhaskararaya refers to the tradition in an introductory verse 3 of his commentary on the Siva-sutras. He further records that Vasugupta handed the same to Kallata, who, with the help of these, expounded the Trika system by his own Spandasutra. Kallata, in his turn, transmitted the Sutras to Pradyumnabhatta, son of his maternal uncle.
Pradyumna taught the same to his son, Prajnarjuna who passed them on to his pupil, Mahadevabhatta. Mahadeva gave them to his son, Srikanthabhatta. Bhaskara says that having obtained the same from him, he composed the Sutravartika at the request of his pupils. Bhaskara, in the colophon to his Vartika, mentions Bhatta Divakara as his father. The Siva-sutras were commented upon, besides Bhaskara, by Ksemaraja who has been mentioned earlier. Bhaskara's commentary, 44 A Companion to Tantra rather explanatory Vartikas, names the three Prakasas of the Sutras as Samanya-cit-prakasa-svarupa-nirupana, Sahaja-vidyodaya, Bibhutispanda respectively.
Ksemaraja's Vrtti is a running commentary. The contents of Siva-sutras are briefly as follows. Caitanya or consciousness is identified with Atman.
The Vartika states the Caitanya consists in jnana and kriya, and as it is not covered by impurities, it is Siva. This Caitanya is followed by jnana or knowledge. The Vartika explains the knowledge as T.
By jnana or ajnana he means the knowledge of the objects of senses. Saktis are four, viz. Their bodies are Kalas consisting in the letter from A to Ksa which are the sources of word sabda. This bondage of knowledge can be removed by effort udyama which is called Bhairava.
Desire iccha of Paramatman is stated to be the transcendent Sakti. The entire phenomenal drsya world is the body of the Lord as Cit or consciousness is pervasive. As a means of removing the evil of ignorance the realisation of Sivatattva as the attributeless lustre is recommended. Siva's strength and sight constitute what is called Sakti. The knowledge of Atman is Vitarka, i. Samadhi-sukha the joy of concentration and meditation is Lokananda. The Vartika identifies loka with the Eternal One, the soul of all; it is He who is joy.
The attainment of the state of Cakresa takes place from the rise of pure knowledge which consists in the realisation 'I am all' sarvahambodha , i. The state of Cakresa has been explained in two ways. It may mean the eight well-known Siddhis called Anima, Laghima, etc.
Or, Cakra is Samvit consciousness ; so the state of Cakresa means the possession of excellent knowledge well-known in Yoga-Sastra. Pure consciousness is Atman for the realisation of which mantra is necessary. Those who are very powerful spiritually can have the above realisation without mantra. But, those who are less powerful require mantra. Mantra is identified with Citta mind which, the Vartika says, is Siva who is devoid of attributes, is omniscient and beyond the limitations of space and time.
For success in mantra effort 1. These are in the form of Karikas, and are purported to explain what has been said, what is unsaid or said in a difficult manner. Tantric Saivism of Kashmir 45 is necessary. The Vartika explains that mantra is the innate nature of the power of Cif.
By incessant meditation on it Yogins attain success. Mantra-rahasya consists in the body in the form of Vidya. When the mind, turned away from the objects of senses, is fixed in Cit, nescience avidya disappears.
When true knowledge of the non-dual Supreme dawns, the state of Siva, called Khecari, arises. Khecari is derived thus. Kha is the sky in the shape of Cit. That which moves about there is called Khecari. As it leads to the attainment of the state of the one who is meditated upon, it is called the state of Siva sivavastha. Thus, Mudra Khecari and Mantra as means to the goal have been stated.
But, how to get the power arising from these? The answer is Guru who represents the Sakti of Sambhu. He explains the truth, and shows the way. Guru leads one to the knowledge about the Kriyasakti power of doing of the Lord. The fire of knowledge being burnt, the gross body, which is subject to the fruits of action, yields place to the divine body. The sustenance anna of this divine body is jnana that is true knowledge.
Here Ksemaraja differs. He takes the body to mean the gross and subtle forms of it. Such body is offered to the fire of Cit. He takes jnana in the sense of false knowledge that causes bondage. It is called anna as it is eaten up by Yogins. This jnana leads to the destruction of false knowledge, and one perceives the illusory nature of things arising therefrom.
Atma has been identified with Citta which is enveloped by jnana, i. Maya illusion is want of discrimination with regard to the Tattvas. The idea is that attachment to the objects of senses is the obstacle on the way to the goal. True knowledge comes from the conquest of delusion moha. The Yogin must be ever awake spiritually; this leads to jivanmukti.
Atman is called a dancer as it throbs according to different conditions. Of this dancer the stage is the inner soul. It may be seen that Atman and the Antaratman inner soul are different from each other. The Vartika makes it clear that, when there is outward flash bahirunmesa , Atman is called a dancer.
When there is inward wink antarunmesa that very Atman is called Antaratman inner soul. The senses are the spectators. Ksemaraja gives its etymological meaning as atati sattvadivrtty-avalambanena yonih samcarati; it goes from one birth to another by resorting to the qualities of Sattva, etc.
Atman is stated as Anu. A Yogin, being asanastha, easily sinks into the inner lake. Here asana appears to mean the greatest power derived from Sakti by which he gives up all kinds of dhyana, dharana and other activities, and, being turned inward, contemplates the Supreme Being alone. The lake is the realisation of the Highest. The destruction of false knowledge by means of true knowledge leads to the cessation of rebirth; this is jmanmukti.
The text is Vidyavinase janma-vinasah. Vidya is taken by the Vartika in the sense of asuddha vidya false knowledge.
But, Ksemaraja takes it to mean correct knowledge. He interprets the sutra thus - Vidyaya avinase, i. By janma he means the senses which are the cause of action accompanied by ignorance and are full of misery. One, who has acquired the correct knowledge, becomes like Siva in life, and Siva Himself after death. The function of the body is the great festival mahavrata of a powerful person; this is Pasupata-vrata. The speech of one, who observes this vow, is japa. By this vrata and japa the knowledge of Atman dawns on the pasus people tied by the bonds of delusion, etc.
Then they become fit for Diksa which consists in dana gift of mantra and ksapana wearing out of pasas. A Kevalin is free from pleasure and pain, i. Moha is stated to arise from Abhilasa desire. When Moha disappears, a person is freed from the fruit of action. A person, who is not liberated, is enveloped by a cloak kancuka in the form of five gross elements. By the means, stated earlier, one becomes like Siva in this life, and one with Siva after death. The entire world is the manifestation of the iccha desire of the Lord.
When a person, according to the instructions prescribed earlier, gets rid of the impurities, and again realises the Atman, he is reunited with the Lord. When he realises his identity with the Supreme Being, he becomes Siva, full of joy. It consists of 52 Karikas, divided into three Nisyandas or sections called respectively Svarupa-spanda, Tantric Saivism of Kashmir 47 Sahajavidyodaya and Bibhuti-spanda. It has a Vrtti or commentary by Kallata. The contents of the Karikas are briefly as follows.
Siva, possessed of Sakti, creates the world by his unmesa opening of eyes and dissolves it by nimesa closing of eyes. The question is - how is the Sivahood of a man, who is subject to rebirth, declared?
The answer is this. There is no obstruction to one in whom all this phenomenal world resides and from whom all this emanates.
The idea is that as he is not enveloped by delusion, etc. His Sivahood is not covered in any condition of jagrat, svapna, susupti. He is beyond happiness, sorrow and delusion. He is neither grahya that which can be taken nor grahaka one who takes.
When one's ego disappears, one attains the Supreme state. In such a condition, one becomes the knower and the doer; then one can do or know everything that is desired. There are two avasthas, one Karya, the other Kartrtva. The former is destructible, the latter imperishable. It is only the effort for Karya that is effaced.
One, who is unwise, thinks himself to be effaced when that effort is effaced. In reality, one's own nature is not subject to destruction. The bhava, that is turned inward and is omniscient, is never effaced. The bhava as Cit remains. The Cit is felt by one who is well awake or fully possessed of knowledge saprabuddha in all the conditions of jagrat, Svapna and Susupti.
Possessed of Supreme Sakti in the form of jnana knowledge and jneya object of knowledge , the Lord shines in the conditions of jagrat and svapna. In Susupti and Turya conditions, He is perceived only as Cit. The Gunas, Sattva, Rajas and Tamas, do not envelop the inherent nature of the yogin.
These Gunas, obstructing the perception of the existence of Cit, cause the people of little enlightenment to fall into the fierce path of rebirth which is difficult to cross; because such people find Atman possessed of these qualities and not as Suddha pure and Buddha enlightened. One, who always makes effort for the manifestation of the real nature of Spanda-tattva, even in the jagrat state attains one's own nature called turya-bhoga. When a person becomes very angry, delighted or bewildered or when he runs, the rise of spanda is to be understood and should be learnt from the Guru.
A man who, having left all other duties, is absorbed in spanda-tattva, 48 A Companion to Tantra realises the highest truth. In such a yogin the moon manas and the sun spana , having left the body, a replica of the universe, set in Susumna Nadi. Then, in that vast sky, devoid of the moon and the sun, a man, full of delusion by svapna, etc.
When awakened he remains uncovered by ignorance, etc. The mantras, which are powerful, having resorted to that power of Sakti, proceed in respective duties. With duties ceased, people, who are calm and free from the taints of Maya, are merged in that sky along with the devotees' mind.
So, as they are joined with Siva, they are said to be possessed of the characteristics of Siva. With that Atman, which is all-encompassing, there is no condition in the thoughts of word and sense that does not suggest Sivahood.
So, the bhokta enjoyer himself is present everywhere as bhogya object of enjoyment. One, whose mind is of this nature that it feels that all the world is pervaded by me and looks at everything as sport, becomes jivanmukta.
A devotee, by means of mantras, becomes one with the deity of the mantra. This realisation of one's own nature without the cover of false knowledge is the acquisition of ambrosia by a devotee. This, indeed, is the initiation to Nirvana that leads to the revelation of the true nature of Paramasiva.
A yogin, in the condition of jagrat, finds, among various things, the very thing desired by him. In svapna also he sees the desired things. The fact that in svapna the heart is clearly manifested shows the independence of it; this is the penetration of the evil.
Laying stress on effort the author gives an analogy. Even when the mind is intent, a distant thing is hazy. Due to effort it appears clearly. So also what really exists can be soon realised by resorting to Sakti. Another analogy is this. Atman pervades the body, a person can at once feel the bite even of a small louse. So, one, who realises Atman, acquires omniscience everywhere. Glani debility or decay wears out the body. It arises from ajnana which is avoided by the knowledge of Atman.
From Atman arise Bindu, Nada, Rupa capacity for seeing in darkness , Rasa taste of nectar in the mouth. These Siddhis, which are obstacles, appear to men very soon. It is the yogins who have realised the identity of all worldly objects with the Supreme Soul that can themselves know the real truth. Tantric Saivism of Kashmir 49 One should be ever awake, comprehend by knowledge what is to be known and fix everything on one, i.
By so doing one is not tormented by Kolas, etc. One who, being an object of enjoyment to forces like Brahmi arising from the mass of words, is led astray by kalas in the shape of the letters beginning with ka; such a person is called Pasu. In him the nectar of the Supreme is absent due to the rise of memory at the sight of the objects of senses. Thus, he loses independence and the capacity for going everywhere.
Ethereal vocals, resounding with the stark intensity of the mantras, Annapoorna Stotram - Lyrics with Meanings. In this stotram, each Goddess is revered with a verse which describes her unique qualities and energies along with her other names. Hence he also praises bhairavi bhadra and bhavan.
Because they have not been broken up according to grammar or meaning, please do not use this document for purposes of translation or interpretation.
There is a legend that he was created by Lord Shiva to pinch off one head of Lord Brahma when due to pride Brahma misbehaved with him. This collection brings three powerful Sanskrit mantras sung by Sadhguru for the Devi. Shiv Tandav Stotram is one of his. These sublimely powerful chants were especially selected by Sadhguru to be played at the consecration of Linga Bhairavi. It is more tantric in nature and has been taught by Lord Shiva to Goddess Parvati.
I must give credit to Kishore, my brother-in-law for providing me this stotram. Bagalamukhi Devi is the eighth of the ten Mahavidyas. Dashamahavidya Goddesses are ten incarnations or manifestations or aspects of Shakti. Why Was Adam Driven from the Garden? Ph: The Tripura Bhairavi Sahasranamam is a thousand name hymn in praise of Goddess Bhairavi and is really beautiful. Rajarajeshwari Ashtakam Sanskrit Lyrics free download as picture file. Shiva Stotram is one of the very religious and holy hymns for Hindus and hence every Lord Shiv devotee read this shiv tandav stotram very Vatuka Bhairava Apaduddhara Stotram consists of names of Bhairava Wrathful form of Shiva , which confers blessings and delivers the practitioner from danger.
Brahma Murari Sura architha Lingam. By regular recitation of the mantras, you can please the planet lords and get favorable results from them. Create your website today. With chanting of Mahakal Stotram seeker can feel power elements and Happiness in his mind. It is a boon for Shiva devotees.
The glory of Mahakaal Stotram is less as described. In July , I came to know that Swami Tadatmananda has made the audio of this teaching available. Navakoti Bhairavi: She controls central nervous system. Kavacha, or, Kavacham means amulet or, armor. Download the app from App Store or Play Store by clicking these buttons.
What is the procedure to recite Siddha Kunjika Stotram? Kunjika Stotram. Start Now. It gives me joy to listen to it and hopefully you will enjoy it too! A yogini is a student of Tantra or an aspirant.
What are the benefits durgz chanting Aditya Hrudayam Stotram? Now the various epithets of goddess are used to praise her. This is an effort to publish the vedic sukta, stotra, mantra and books in Odia Oriya aparajita stotram in.
The Shiva Stotra with its meaning. This devotional verse is addressed to Goddess, who killed Demon Mahishasura on the day of Vijayadashami. It is more thanthric in nature and has been taught by Lord Shiva to Goddess Parvathi. Siddha kunjika stotram pdf Dham, Dheem, Dhoom, the wife of Lord Shiva, VaamveemVoomsiddha kunjika stotram pdf goddess of speech, Kraam, kreemkroomthe goddess KaliSaam, seem, soom,please do siddha kunjika stotram pdf. Bhairava is considered as an incarnation of Lord Shiva by some people and as an assistant to Lord Shiva by I others.
Goddess Bhairavi is the consort of the Bhairava which is the fierce manifestation of Lord Shiva associated with the annihilation. More albums from Sounds of Isha. Panchami bhairavi parvatha putri panchanal paaniyale, konjidum kumaranai gunamigu velanai koduththanal kumariyale, sangadam theerthida samaradhu seythanal sakthi enum maaye, jaya jaya shankari gowri krupakari dhukka nivarani kamakshi.
Mahakaal Stotram describes various names of Lord Mahakal. Shiva Lingashtakam Mantra features eight Stanzas on Shivalinga and it is said that any Shiva devotee who chants the holy octet of the Shiva Lingam with great devotion would in the end get moksha and reach the Shiva Lok the world of Hindu God Shiva.
During gondhal a loud absolute fire element oriented sound is generated by impact and Energy frequencies get attracted to aparajita stotram in sound. Victory to Om Sai Ram!!!
Bhairav is worshipped first thing in the morning, and best just after Sunrise. This page is collection of Mantras of Das Mahavidya Goddesses. The tenth form of Mahavidya is Bhairavi.